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Tag Navigation in Vim

Estimated read time: 3 minutes


There is a command gd that stands for Goto local Declaration. It is quite useful when looking for a variable inside the current buffer as it allows to jump to where it is declared when the variable is under the cursor. Using that command, you can also find where a function is declared and it will find the first occurrence in the current function. If looking for the first occurrence in the buffer, gD (Goto global Declaration) will do the trick. You can jump back and forth to where you were with the commands Ctrl + O (older position) and Ctrl + I (newer position) in normal mode.

To be able to jump between buffers and go back to the origin of a declaration when it is imported in the current module, generating tags comes in very handy as it allows you to use the command Ctrl + ] to jump to a tag, just like when using the help pages in Vim.

To make this work, we can conveniently use ctags. First, we need to make sure it’s installed on the system as follow:


Debian/Ubuntu

sudo apt-get install ctags

or

sudo apt-get install exuberant-ctags

OS X

brew install ctags

You can put the following command in your configuration file to be able to generate the necessary tags inside Vim by typing MakeTags in command mode:

command! MakeTags !ctags -R .

This will make it easy to remember how to do it. After that, open an existing project in its root directory and use this newly created MakeTags command to generate the tags. This will create a file named tags in the current working directory*. Now, you will be able to open any file inside your project and jump to all the available declarations with Ctrl + ].

* Note: This will create tags recursively from the current working directory, not from the path matching the current buffer.

If you go to a tag that leads you a few declarations away in one file or another, you can come back with Ctrl + T. Here is a clear explanation from Vim’s help:

The most obvious way to use this is while browsing through the call graph of
a program.  Consider the following call graph:

    main  --->  FuncA  --->  FuncC
          --->  FuncB

(Explanation: main calls FuncA and FuncB; FuncA calls FuncC).
You can get from main to FuncA by using CTRL-] on the call to FuncA.  Then
you can CTRL-] to get to FuncC.  If you now want to go back to main you can
use CTRL-T twice.  Then you can CTRL-] to FuncB.

To keep those tags useful when you update your project, you can map a sequence that saves the buffer you are working on and then regenerates the tags automatically. Here is an example:

nnoremap <leader>W :w<CR>:MakeTags<CR>:echo 'ctags have been updated.'<CR>

And on this note, we’re ready to conquer the world.

© Sébastien Lavoie. Built in Python using Pelican v4.5.4. Theme adapted from Giulio Fidente on GitHub.